Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. It’s ranked the No. 9 university in the nation by U.S. News and World Report, just a few spots behind Ivy League universities like Stanford and Yale. Duke enrolls 16,780 students, including just under 7,000 undergraduates.
Known for its excellent academics, global presence, and championship-level athletics, Duke receives about 40,000 applications each year. Earning a spot at Duke is challenging, but we’re here to help. This guide is packed with data, information, and advice to help you stand out from the crowd and earn an acceptance letter from Duke.
Duke students call the university “exciting, challenging, and enjoyable.” It combines academic excellence with a wide variety of extracurricular opportunities and highly competitive Division I sports. The most popular majors at Duke include computer science, public policy, biology, economics, and psychology, but the university’s programs are top-notch across the board.
Despite the rigor of Duke coursework, professors are supportive and academic resources include a peer tutoring system, review sessions, a writing center, and an academic support center. The student-to-faculty ratio is 8:1, allowing for personalized support and discussion-based classes. Professors include Nobel Prize and Pulitzer Prize winners, and students can work with leading professors in labs and on projects.
Greek life plays a big role in Duke’s social scene, but plentiful extracurricular activities and organizations offer something for everyone. Organizations frequently host movies, shows, and campus-wide parties open to all students. Basketball is another favorite pastime, with students painting themselves blue to cheer on the Duke Blue Devils in Cameron Indoor Stadium. Surrounding Durham is home to shops, restaurants, and clubs, and students enjoy weekend getaways for skiing or beach trips.
Is It Hard to Get Into Duke?
Duke has an acceptance rate of 8.9%. For every 100 applicants, about nine are accepted. The other 91 applicants receive a rejection.
In comparison to other universities, Duke’s acceptance rate is extremely selective. It’s not much higher than Ivy League acceptance rates, which typically range from 4% to 8%.
GPA and Test Scores for Duke
Students admitted to Duke have an average GPA of 4.13. This means you’ll need to earn nearly straight A’s and be near the top of your class to compete with other applicants.
You should also take several AP and IB classes. These courses not only boost your GPA, but they also show top universities like Duke that you’re ready for college-level coursework.
If you’re a freshman or sophomore with a lower GPA, you have time to improve your grades and increase your grade point average. If you’re already a junior, focus on earning competitive test scores and enhancing other areas of your application.
Duke is test-optional for the 2022-2023 admissions cycle. This means if you apply without SAT or ACT scores, you won’t be at a disadvantage. But if you choose to submit test scores, they will be considered as part of your application. We highly recommend submitting your test scores unless you think they reflect poorly on your academic ability.
The average ACT score for students admitted to Duke is 34. The 25th percentile score is 33, and the 75th percentile score is 35. When you apply to an extremely competitive university like Duke, scoring in the 75th percentile improves your chances of admission.
Now, let’s look at an SAT score breakdown for students admitted to Duke.
|Section||Average||25th Percentile||75th Percentile|
Because your chances increase with a score in the 75th percentile, aim for a 1570 on the SAT, with an 800 in Math and a 770 in Reading.
Based on this data, you should strive for a:
- GPA of at least 4.13
- ACT score of 35, OR
- SAT score of 1570
Of course, these numbers are nearly perfect. And the data shows that students with lower (but still excellent) scores get into Duke too. Your GPA and test scores are important, but there are many other qualities that the Duke admissions committee values in their applicants.
What Other Qualities Does Duke Look For?
When you apply to an extremely selective school like Duke, your GPA and test scores are essential to get your foot in the door. But many academically qualified students apply to Duke each year. If your numbers are slightly lower, what can you do to improve your chances? And if your numbers are on point, what can you do to stand out from other students with solid numbers?
Duke’s website explains that they offer “a multitude of opportunities” to its students. They’re looking for students “ready to respond to these opportunities intelligently, creatively, and enthusiastically.” The website also says, “We like ambition and curiosity, talent and persistence, energy and humanity.”
The admissions committee will give your application a comprehensive review, considering both your academic and personal qualities. They will consider your accomplishments within the context of your opportunities and challenges. They also seek students with a variety of experiences, backgrounds, interests, and opinions.
In addition to your academic abilities, Duke will look for:
- Engagement with ideas, people, and your community
- Interest in being challenged personally and academically
- Drive to make an impact
- Imagination, curiosity, and a sense of fun
- Openness to opportunities
- Quality of thought and expression in the application essay
As you prepare to apply to Duke, remember that your numbers alone don’t define you. The admissions committee wants to see what kind of person you are. They’re looking for curiosity, creativity, a sense of fun, a drive to challenge yourself and make an impact, and more. Let these qualities shine through in your application, in addition to your academic ability, and you’ll be a more competitive applicant.
What Should You Do in High School?
It’s time to talk strategy! Based on the data and information we’ve shared so far, what should you do in high school to improve your chances of acceptance to Duke?
Excel in Challenging Classes
To earn a spot at a competitive school like Duke, it’s essential to take and excel in the most challenging classes offered at your school. Duke’s website states, “For some students, this will include AP or IB courses, whereas for others it will include honors, accelerated, or college courses.”
Duke recommends four years of English and at least three years of mathematics, natural sciences, foreign language, and social studies. They expect students to take at least five academic courses per year. If you don’t take four years in a particular subject area, it should be replaced with “an academic course of equal rigor.”
Remember that the average student admitted to Duke has a GPA of 4.13. You’ll need to earn nearly all A’s in your classes, including the most challenging ones. Take notes in each of your classes and review them weekly. Turn in all assignments on time and study diligently for all exams. Be proactive if you start to fall behind or struggle with some of the material. Ask a teacher, tutor, or student who’s excelling in the class for help.
Earn Competitive SAT/ACT Scores
Standardized tests give you another chance to showcase your academic ability. Duke accepts both the ACT and SAT, with no preference for either test. Duke will always consider your highest score regardless of test type or test date. Applicants may self-report scores on the application, including AP and IB test scores.
Although Duke is test-optional, we recommend taking test prep seriously and aiming for the highest score possible. High test scores can make up for a slightly lower GPA, and they can help you rise above students with the same GPA.
Begin preparing for the SAT/ACT several months in advance, using the following test prep process:
- Take timed practice tests for both the ACT and the SAT to decide which test best showcases your strengths.
- Once you choose a test, use information from your practice test to build a customized study plan. What are your strengths and weaknesses? Which skills or question types did you struggle with?
- Consider purchasing an SAT/ACT study guide. Then block time each week to drill practice questions, read high-level texts, and brush up on the skills that challenge you.
- With a month left until your test date, focus exclusively on your area(s) of weakness.
- Keep taking timed practice tests to practice your pacing and adjust your plan as needed.
- If your first test score is lower than you hoped, use your score report to create a plan for improvement. Repeat this test prep process with your updated study plan and retake the exam.
Remember that if you don’t get a score you’re happy with, you aren’t required to include it in your application to Duke. Still, impressive test scores can give your application a competitive boost, so do your best to earn an SAT/ACT score worth including.
Pursue Your Passions
Duke University’s website refers to extracurricular activities as “a means by which you can identify your passions and interests.” These activities are also a way to engage with people, ideas, and your community, a quality that Duke looks for in its applicants.
As you engage in extracurriculars, remember that the point isn’t to collect a long, impressive list of activities. Your extracurricular activities should be about exploring your passions, expressing your curiosity and creativity, and engaging with ideas and people in your community.
So, find a few activities that genuinely excite you and stick with them. Try to make significant contributions and/or take on leadership roles. If possible, aim for awards and recognition that show your talent in your areas of interest. Keep a record of your participation so you can provide a thorough, accurate report of your activities on your Duke application.
Serve Your Community
Another quality mentioned on Duke’s website is “drive to make an impact.” Serving your school, community, or the world is a powerful way to show that you’re driven to make a positive impact (and likely to make a positive impact on Duke’s campus too).
Serve others in ways that are meaningful, interesting, and inspiring to you. What problems in your school or community can you help solve? What social issues matter to you, and what can you do to make a difference?
Join an existing service organization in your school or community. Better yet, start an initiative or even a nonprofit organization of your own. Successful applicants to the most competitive schools often lead impactful initiatives in their communities or launch their own nonprofit organizations. Whatever you do, make sure that it’s meaningful to you and impactful to others.
Keep a record of your community service, just like you keep a record of your extracurricular participation. What did you do and why? What impact did it make in your school, community, or the wider world? Being an impactful high school student shows that you’re likely to also be an impactful student at Duke and an impactful Duke alumnus in the future.
Duke Application Process and Checklist
Duke accepts the Common Application, Coalition Application, and QuestBridge Application.
Whichever form you choose, your application will include:
- High school transcripts
- Self-reported or official SAT/ACT scores (optional)
- Three letters of recommendation: one from your counselor and two from teachers in core academic courses, preferably within the last two school years
- Personal recommendation from an employer, mentor, etc. (optional)
- Activities list
- Common App/Coalition App essay
- Duke Supplement (short-answer questions)
- Alumni interview (optional)
After applying, you’ll be matched with an alumni volunteer if an alumni interviewing committee is present in your area. The interviewer will contact you by phone or email. This optional interview lasts 30-60 minutes. (If you want to be interviewed, you must apply Early Decision or by the Regular Decision priority interview deadline.)
Duke does not accept additional documents such as resumes or research abstracts. Students with “exceptional talent in dance, music, photography, film/video/digital, or theater” may submit optional arts supplement(s).
Duke University Supplement
In addition to the Common App or Coalition App essay, Duke applicants will complete the Duke University Supplement. The supplement consists of one required short-answer question and two optional short-answer questions.
We recommend answering at least the first and second questions, in addition to answering the third question if you feel it applies to you. You should take advantage of every opportunity to shine.
Most recently, Duke’s short-answer questions were:
Please share with us why you consider Duke a good match for you. Is there something in particular about Duke’s academic or other offerings that attract you? (200 words maximum)
1) Duke University seeks a talented, engaged student body that embodies the wide range of human experience; we believe that the diversity of our students makes our community stronger. If you’d like to share a perspective you bring or experiences you’ve had that would help us understand you better, perhaps a community you belong to or your family or cultural background, we encourage you to do so here. Real people are reading your application, and we want to do our best to understand and appreciate the real people applying to Duke. (250 words maximum)
2) Duke’s commitment to diversity and inclusion includes sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. If you would like to share with us more about your identity in these areas, you can do so here or, if you feel you have adequately represented your gender and sexual orientation in other parts of your application, feel free to not respond to this prompt. (250 words maximum)
Tips for Your Duke Essays
For the Common App or Coalition App essay and the Duke Supplement, follow these tips:
- Do your research. For the first short-answer question, do your research on Duke. Browse the school’s website for specific information on classes, organizations, and other opportunities. Your knowledge of Duke will show that you’re serious about attending. Make sure to let your interest in and enthusiasm for Duke shine through!
- Stay on topic. You have a very limited word count, so avoid lengthy introductions or unnecessary tangents. Make sure to fully address each question. These topics were hand-selected by Duke’s admissions committee, so be sure to give them the information they want to know about you.
- Be creative. Don’t be afraid to take a creative approach to your essay(s) when possible. In the second short-answer question, for example, your “community” can be just about anything, including a unique hobby or interest of yours. Duke values creativity and curiosity, so don’t shy away from including these aspects of your personality in your essays.
- Write in your authentic voice. Duke wants to know who you are as a person, so write like a human and not a thesaurus! Your essay should “sound” like you, so be sure to use your genuine voice and showcase your unique personal qualities.
- Include specific details. The last thing you want to do is write a generic essay that sounds like everyone else. In addition to using your authentic voice, include vivid, concrete details. These details allow you to write an essay that only you could write.
- Proofread carefully. Check your essay multiple times or spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, word usage, concision, and clarity. Have a parent, teacher, or trusted friend check over your essay too. Be sure to ask them if it sounds like you!
In addition, remember that Duke’s website says they look for “quality of thought and expression” in your essays. Take the opportunity to show thoughtfulness and reflection.
In addition to explaining why you like Duke, talk about why you’re a good fit for the university. Explain why specific offerings appeal to you and how you would take advantage of these opportunities. When you write about your community or orientation, discuss its impact on you and how it has impacted you and your personal growth.
Should You Apply Early to Duke?
Duke offers both Early Decision and Regular Decision. The Early Decision deadline is November 1, and applicants will receive a decision by mid-December. The Regular Decision deadline is January 4, but you must apply by December 20 for alumni interview priority consideration. Regular Decision applicants receive a decision by late March or early April.
Duke’s Early Decision program is binding. If you apply early and receive an acceptance letter, you must attend Duke. That means applying early is a big decision. You should only apply early to Duke if you’re certain it’s your top choice. You can still apply early to other schools if their programs are non-binding, but you’ll have to withdraw your applications if you’re accepted to Duke.
So, does applying Early Decision give you an advantage? Early Decision applicants to the class of 2026 had an acceptance rate of 21%, which is significantly higher than the average acceptance rate of 8.9%.
If Duke is your top choice, we recommend applying Early Decision. When you apply early, you’re compared to a smaller pool of applicants, and the admissions committee will know that Duke is truly your first choice. Plus, you’ll receive a decision from Duke much sooner.
Final Thoughts: How to Get Into Duke
Duke is an extremely selective university. It’s essential to have an excellent GPA and test scores, but it’s also important to show talent, passion, involvement in your community, a willingness to challenge yourself, and a drive to make an impact. Duke is interested in both your academic ability and personal qualities.
Here’s how to increase your chances of acceptance:
- Excel in the most challenging classes available at your school.
- Aim for a GPA of at least 4.13 and an ACT score of 35 or an SAT score of 1570. (Slightly lower scores can get you into Duke too, but you don’t have to submit scores with your application if you’re not happy with them.)
- Commit to a few extracurricular activities you’re passionate about and strive to make significant contributions, take on leadership roles, and earn awards or recognition.
- Serve your school, community, or the world in ways that are close to your heart.
- When you write your essays, do your research, stay on topic, include specific details, write in your authentic voice, and proofread carefully. Showcase your genuine personality, including creativity, curiosity, and your ability to think and reflect.
- If Duke is your top choice, apply Early Decision.
By combining your academic excellence with these strategies, you’ll increase your chances of becoming a Duke Blue Devil!